From 1877 with the publication of the Assommoir, Emile Zola became rich, he was better paid than Victor Hugo, for example. He became a figurehead of the literary bourgeoisie and organized cultural dinners with Guy de Maupassant, Joris-Karl Huysmans and other writers in his luxurious villa in Medan, near Paris after 1880. Germinal in 1885, then the three cities, Lourdes in 1894, Rome in 1896 and Paris in 1897, established that Zola a successful author. The self-proclaimed leader of French naturalism, Zola works inspired operas such as those of Gustave Charpentier, notably Louise in the 1890s. His works, inspired by concepts of heredity (Claude Bernard), the socialism and Manicheism of idealistic socialism , resonate with those of Nadar, Manet and later Flaubert. Captain Alfred Dreyfus was a Jewish artillery officer of the French army. When French intelligence found information about someone giving the German Embassy military secrets, anti-Semitism seems to have caused senior officers to suspect Dreyfus, if there was no direct evidence of any reprehensible act. Dreyfus was in court martial, convicted of treason and sent to Devil's Island in French Guiana.