Le Mythe Galilée, Fabien Chareix Written in French, A revolutionary founder of modern physics? The simple continuator of medieval physics? The inspirer of the experimental method? The last offshoot of Platonic idealism? If one sticks to the many labels that have historically characterized the thought of Galileo, the confusion is obvious. At the twilight of an undivided domination of a certain Greek image of the world, the Florentine work is full of multiple ambitions but follows an invariable orientation: to fight, in all regions of knowledge, against the dogma of Aristotelian natural philosophy. Astronomy, mechanics, the definitions of matter and of the understanding which is related to it: everything is a pretext, in Galileo's work, for an activity of radical criticism in which we see the emergence, little by little, of the foundations of an idea of nature which, even today and in spite of the successive revolutions of contemporary physics, seems to us familiar and ours. But do we know it otherwise than by the myths it has never ceased to convey? But this new science did not come about by spontaneous generation: it is the result of a patient work during which Galileo had to ignore the teaching of his teachers. If Galilean science has a definitive form recorded in the Dialogo and the Discorsi, it is more than necessary to go through the historical and conceptual stages of its formation. This is what this book proposes.