Written by an international group of recognized experts, this volume addresses the complications of spine surgery and the treatment of patients with adverse surgical outcomes. Coverage includes discussions of failed spine fusion, postoperative scoliosis, postoperative flat back, postoperative infection, epidural fibrosis, and complications resulting from implants and devices. Chapters offer guidelines on patient selection for surgery and identify psychosocial risk factors for chronic pain. Sections on treatment of the failed spine cover medications, physical therapy, and invasive modalities including radiofrequency procedures, spinal cord stimulation, epiduroscopy, and revision lumbar fusion. A treatment algorithm for the failed back surgery syndrome is included.