Patients with complex problems, including co-morbidity, chronic conditions, enduring vulnerabilities, psychotic conditions, persistent difficulties with social relationships and destabilising social environments, are increasingly recognised as the reality of the therapist's case load. The cognitive behavioural case formulation approach can be particularly suited to the treatment of such complex cases. This book brings together some of the most experienced and expert cognitive behavioural therapists to share their specialist experience of formulation and treatment of these complex cases. The experienced clinician will find in these accounts: * Evidence-based approaches to assessment and formulation of complex cases * A wide range of problems not restricted to disorder categories, including anger, low self-esteem, abuse and shame * A concern with the realities of clinical practice which involves complex cases that do not fit neatly into simple case conceptualisations or diagnostic categories Many of these chapters highlight the difficulties and complexities encountered by the clinician in conceptualising and treating these cases. However, they go beyond raising awareness of issues and provide, . where appropriate, specific guidance on dealing with problems of engagement, socialisation, and implementation of treatment in complex cases.